What Image Formats Are Used In Web-design?

Currently, there are quite a number of different graphics file formats. Nevertheless, all of them can be divided into two groups. These are files that store vector graphics, and files stored raster graphics. Raster graphics – is a format when the image is stored in the form of small dots – pixels. Accordingly, the quality of such images is limited by two factors: it is actually the size of the image in pixels, and image resolution – that is, the number of pixels per unit length (the most common pixels per inch). Files stored in raster graphics are a jpg, … Continue reading

What Is The Bitrate? What You Should Know About It.

With the term “bitrate” we face at the mention of audio and video formats. To understand this term, you must master the process of compressing and encoding files. German scientists have laid the general principle of file compression with minimal loss. On the example of coding the original MP3 sound file is cut into fragments, the duration of 50 milliseconds, each of which is analyzed separately. In the analysis of the fragment is decomposed into harmonics of the Fourier method, of which, in accordance with the theory of sound perception by the human ear thrown those harmonics that people perceive … Continue reading

Acoustic Saga. How The Format MP3 Was Created?

The successfully passed operation of recording digital audio on the CDA (Compact Disc Audio) announced to the world about the beginning of a new era in sound recording. In 1982 in Langenhagen, near Hanover, was discovered the mass production of CDs. The rapid development of computer technology and digital technology, which began a little later, led to the necessity of compression of digital audio. The reason for this was a mass. Saving disk space, increasing the speed of transmission of digital information, the need for a sound recording format, suitable for use in the software. In 1987, the German Fraunhofer … Continue reading

Let’s Ping A Server Or What Is Pinging?

Probably everybody has noticed that when connecting to the Internet via dial-up-modem the connection speed gradually decreases. The fact is that when connecting new users to the server provider’s connection speed is reduced (more so if the server provider “thinks” that your modem shows no activity). To restore the connection speed you can use the so-called ping. What is a ping? A ping (English acronym for Packet InterNet Groper) is a program used to check the availability of the destination network by sending him a special signal (ICMP echo request) and wait for a response. Pinging is a diagnostic scan … Continue reading

Vista: How to Disable User Account Control?

What is User Account Control? UAC protects, requesting permission or an administrator password before making a potentially dangerous activity or a change in the parameters that can influence on the work of other users. Appeared UAC-post should be read carefully to check whether the name of the action (program) that which actually produced (runs). Check out these steps before you start, UAC can help prevent the installation of malicious software and spyware, as well as the attempts of these programs to make unauthorized changes to the OS. If the job is complete to allow or require a password, UAC displays … Continue reading

Acoustic Saga. How The Sound Was Turned Into Numbers?

Analog signal using an ADC (analog-digital converter) is divided into small plots of duration of a few one hundred thousandth of a second. On each of these areas the ADC the amplitude of the sound is measured. The reciprocal of the length of these sections is called sampling rate, measured as the sound frequency, in hertz. Obviously, the higher it is (the more often we measure the amplitude), the more complete information about the signal we can save. However too frequent measurements require a lot of space to store the received information. On the other hand, reducing the sampling rate … Continue reading

Vista: To Use Hibernation Or Not?

What is hibernate (English) – 1) hibernate (of animals); overwintering, spending the winter in warmer places, areas (about people), 2) figurative meaning: “Sleep”, “doze”; do nothing. ” Hibernation” is a mode of power supply on the the PC which the current of the user session (all open applications and files) is stored on a hard disk (for this purpose at the root of your C: drive, a file hiberfil.sys; has attributes of Hidden system, 0.99 GB), after this PC power is turned off. When you return to the interrupted operation, the PC comes out of hibernation in a few seconds … Continue reading

Web-camera. How To Look In Other’s Homes Without Leaving A Home?

Modern society has become dependent. It is dependent from smoking, addiction to alcohol, drugs, society, state, and finally, depending on the information and communication infrastructure. Communications are developing so rapidly that mobile phones and various communication devices have become a habitual means of communication of millions of people. But who would have thought 30 years ago that today, while thousands of miles apart, you can not only communicate but also to see the face of your friend! Firstly web-camera was made to organize and creates a teleconferencing via the Internet. Today, with this multifunction device you can shoot videos, take … Continue reading

How To Prolong Life Of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor?

The world today is moving at great speed down the road of scientific and technological progress. And nobody will be surprised with a thin LCD monitor or TV. They can be seen in almost any office. Many have already changed their fat old TVs to the new slim LCD panel. Laptops also have an LCD screen, so it is also a concern. The advantages of LCD technology are: 1. Flicker-free (image constant, and only those pixels change color, where the movement) 2. Reflection of light from the LCD monitor is 4 times less than that of conventional CRT display 3. … Continue reading

How To Extend The Life Of The Battery Of A Laptop.

Every day, notebooks and netbooks are gaining the popularity, despite the somewhat high prices compared to their stationary brethren. This is due to the fact that the basic rate in the world today is on the mobility and autonomy. Initially, at first it works from the network, but then we feel the need to work offline. And here rises a question about the battery life and the extension of working hours on a single charge. Tip 1. Battery power is used absolutely in all the devices on the laptop, so when running the battery the power should be off on … Continue reading

What Is NAS (Network Storage System)?

NAS is a set of hard disks connected to the LAN. It features from a simple external drive connected to the router via USB with the greatest functionality, scalability, provision of additional services and greater fault tolerance (if using RAID). In fact, it is inexpensive miniserver for home or for your company. Firstly it is for storing data. If there is more than one computer at home, then increase the volume of hard disk drives in each cost more. Yes, the backup of your data should be stored somewhere in case your computer crashes or virus infection. DVD collection, too, … Continue reading

Windows: What To Do If The Virus Disabled The Printing Subsystem?

Some viruses infect Microsoft Windows, they disable the printing subsystem. The symptoms of infection are: when you try to print a file, a message that the print subsystem is unavailable appears on the screen. When you try to display the properties of the connected printers the error message appears on the screen: “Unable to display the printer properties. Print subsystem is unavailable “. An unpleasant consequence is that even after the treatment the print subsystem remains unavailable. The algorithm for the fault: – open the Windows Task Manager (in any way – by using Ctrl + Alt + Del, or … Continue reading

Windows: How To Fix The Problems With The Print Queue?

Print spooler is a program planner which accepts documents sent by the user to print, stores them (on the disk or in memory) and sends in the order of the selected printer. Disk address of the Print Spooler (Spooler SubSystem App) – WindowsSystem32spoolsv.exe; Buffering print is a creation of a print queue allowing the processor of the computer to expedite the processing of a print job due to its temporary storage on the hard disk before being sent to the printer. As a result, the processor can more quickly return control to the program from which you print than if … Continue reading

How To Monitor The Status Of Your Hard Drive?

Windows is not just an environment for running different applications. The package of the operating system includes many programs for PC maintenance, solving specific problems, and even entertainment. As a general rule, access to these utilities can be obtained through the section Standard Start menu. Click on the Start button, navigate to the point to All Programs, then Accessories – and you’ll see a list of installed on your computer utilities Windows. Disk Cleanup Utility removes the unused files from your hard drive. For example, it removes the waste from the Recycle Bin, deletes temporary files created in the process … Continue reading

What Is TCI And PR?

Today in the web there are two important indicators that determine the quality of the site – they are PR and TCI. PR (Page Rank) is an algorithm that allows us to determine the credibility of the site in the search engine Google. The author of this algorithm is Larry Page. PR is calculated for each page. Mathematically it is the probability of finding a particular link to the pages of many sites. This takes into account the quantity and quality of external links on the page, PR referrers, quality and quantity of outgoing links. For simplicity, we can say … Continue reading

What Is A Web-optimization?

Web-optimization is the site changes leading to higher rankings in search engines by using some particular keyword. Web- optimization is also abbreviated as SEO (Search Engine Optimization). The task of the optimizer is to withdraw the website at least in the top ten by using knowledge of search engine ranking strategy. What to do for this? Submit your site. Each search engine or directory has a special page with a questionnaire which you can specify a search engine for the emergence of a new site that is included in the database. You can, of course, wait for the crawler finds … Continue reading

How To Change The Location Of The Spool Folder?

What is the print spooler? spool (English) – spool in/ out the data; SPOOL – abbr. from Simultaneous Print Operations On Line spooler (print spooler) 1) print spooler is a program planner which accepts documents sent by the user to print, stores them (on the disk or in memory) and sends in the order of the selected printer. Disk address of the Print Spooler (Spooler SubSystem App) – WindowsSystem32spoolsv.exe; 2) printing subsystem receives, processes, performs scheduling and distributes the document sent to the printer. Disk address of the printing subsystem (Spooler SubSystem DLL) – WindowsSystem32spoolss.dll; spool file is a file … Continue reading

What Is A Screenshot And Snapshot? Part 2

Black Square of Bill Gates, or how to take a screenshot from the video? When you try to get a screenshot of the current frame video (for example, any film or video) by pressing Print Screen – As a rule, we will see “hello” from Microsoft, – so-called “Bill Gates’ black box” (or ” Billy’s black mark “). This is because many players (including – Windows Media Player) use overlay DirectX – DirectDraw. The image isn’t displayed on the monitor through the video buffer (as usual), but directly through the selection of memory cards. Therefore, there is a black screen. … Continue reading

How To Deal With The Windows Command Line?

Many of those who started work on the PC back in the old-nice-good DOS times still prefer the alternative file managers to Windows Explorer, such as: Total Commander / Far / Norton Commander / Volkov Commander. These file managers include many features and, among other things, allow you to work with the command line. I do not want to praise Windows, but now its conductor is not very much inferior to these file managers. Well, to work with the command line there is a built-in command interpreter. Windows command handler (other names – command interpreter, command processor, command line, command … Continue reading

How To Turn Off The PC “blindly”?

Let’s imagine this situation: there is a PC, back-ups, but due to the lack of power to the UPS only the system unit is connected to it (monitor is not connected to UPS). What if the delivery of energy has disappeared in the supply mains (or, for example, such a situation: the power is OK, but suddenly it is broken down the monitor)? The base unit continues to work from the battery of the uninterruptible power supply but the monitor, of course, does not work. How properly to shut down your PC? The correct “blindly” shutdown of the localized Windows … Continue reading

What To Do If The Message “Task Manager Is Disabled By Administrator” Appears.

If you try to start Task Manager Windows (in any way – either by using Ctrl + Alt + Del, or by using Start -> Run … -> taskmgr -> OK), and the message “Task Manager is disabled by the administrator” appears in the dialog window of Task Manager it usually indicates a possible infection of viruses. The fact is that the virus disables the Task Manager, so that they cannot be forced to unload from memory. In the Windows registry, see [HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesSystem] parameter REG_DWORD DisableTaskMgr is created with the value of 1. How can you enable the launch or … Continue reading

What Is The Ferrite Shell?

It’s probably you’ve noticed a ferrite cylinder in the plastic shell at the all cables of the monitors, printers, cameras and other computer equipment. What is it for? Ferrite cylinder (ferrite core, ferrite cover) is the screen that protects from electromagnetic interference and crosstalk: it prevents the distortion of the signal transmitted by cable from the effects of external electromagnetic field, and also prevents the emission of electromagnetic fields (noise) from the cable to the external environment. What is the basis principle of protecting? The internal and external cables of the computer equipment can operate like miniature antennas, because they … Continue reading

A Brief Description Of The E-mail Work

To send or receive e-mails one has only know the recipient’s email address. E-mail account is protected by a password which user chooses. There are a variety of ways to create e-mail account: 1. If you have an account with an ISP, you may have POP account (e-mail protocol). 2. You can get a Web UI e -mail account at organizations that provide free email services such as Hotmail, Yahoo, Mail, Rambler, Google and others. Web UI based e-mail typically is implemented with a protocol called IMAP. Protocol IMAP is an analog of POP; it is also used to download … Continue reading

What Is A Screenshot And Snapshot? Part 1

A screenshot is a snapshot of the content of the monitor screen. Screenshots can illustrate the work of any programs that reveal the sequence of actions, such as installing hardware or software. Screenshots are sometimes asked to send in case of any failure of software manufacturers. Screenshots often illustrate their articles and book writers (both in digital form and in the “paper”). How to make a screenshot? There are many programs for screenshot “taking”, but the easiest and that is always at hand in every PC user is to use key Print Screen. Pressing of this button puts all the … Continue reading

Windows: How Find the Installation Date of an Operating System.

Usually such a question arises or when buying or selling a PC, or just out of curiosity. The easiest way to find all the answers on this question is by using the built-in Windows items. Using system utilities System Information (WINDOWSsystem32systeminfo.exe) XP: -Click Start -> Run … (or press with the logo of Microsoft + R); – in the Run window in the Open box type cmd, click OK; – in the window command interpreter Windows (see How to work with the Windows command line?) after the prompt, enter systeminfo, press Enter; – the information about your system configuration will … Continue reading

What Is A Card-Reader?

Card Reader (Multi-slots Card Reader / Writer, Memory Card Reader / Writer) is a compact unit (weight 150-200 g) to read / write data to a memory card types (other name is storage of memory card). It is connected to USB port (in this case the device has a standard USB-connector mini-B). Technical characteristic features of the card reader: Compliant with USB specifications1.1/2.0; Declared read / write speed – up to 480 Mbps (in fact, read / write speed is much less! It depends on many factors: the model of the card reader, interface USB – 1.1 or 2.0, combined … Continue reading

Windows: System Restore – To Disable Or Not?

A very useful utility System Restore is a part of Windows XP and Vista (disk address is: Windows XP – WINDOWSsystem32Restorerstrui.exe; Vista – WindowsSystem32rstrui.exe). System Restore is a component of the OS, by which if you have problems you can restore a previous state without losing personal computer users’ files. System Restore monitors the changes in the system and some application files and automatically creates easily identifiable restore points. Restore points are created daily, as well as during major system events (such as installing an application or driver). The user also has the opportunity to create the named restore points … Continue reading

What Is TCP/IP ?

The most curious users of personal computers running Windows operating systems, of course, at least once in their life looked into the network settings and connect to the internet via a modem or local area network. And somewhere in the depths of tabs, among icons and buttons, they will no doubt find such a mysterious thing as “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)”, and perhaps even set it up themselves. Let’s talk about what exactly TCP/IP is and how it works. First of all, what is a network protocol? By the analogy with the “protocols” of human communication it is a set of … Continue reading

Turn Off The Light Before Leaving, Or Should I Turn Off My PC?

Do you have to turn off a computer at night (or when you depart from home for a few hours)? It should be approached individually. If the electrical network, powering your PC runs reliably and smoothly, you cannot turn it off. But if you have power outages often, it is better to turn off the computer. Otherwise you should buy the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). It is a source of secondary power, an automatic device whose purpose is to ensure the electrical equipment connected to it uninterrupted supply of electrical energy within the normal range. The computer users often ask … Continue reading

The Ways You Should Not “optimize”, “clean” And “accelerate” Windows!

All the programs must be used with caution, especially when “cleaning” the Windows Registry. If the famous Norton Utilities, and Fix-It in Windows-95/98 could be used safely, the use of these and other similar programs in Windows XP and Vista often have “optimizing” the system in such a way that after a reboot it couldn’t boot even in safe mode! Antivirus. Today’s anti-virus database is updated daily average on 200-500 entries, so the recommendations of some authors to update the antivirus once in 1-2 months look quite ridiculous. If you work every day in the Internet, it is desirable to … Continue reading

How To Avoid A Loss Of Information?

It is rather difficult to overestimate the importance of information in this age of information technology. The causes of loss of the information: – The destructive effect of viruses – reckless actions of the user (accidental deletion, formatting, …) – failure (damage of the structure) of file system – damage because of the power failure in the supply line – bugs – problems during the creation of the partitions – incorrect shutdown of the computer How to avoid the loss of information (or to minimize the risk of the loss) 1. Use modern operating systems such as, Windows XP. 2. … Continue reading

How To Choose A Network Conditioner?

It’s no secret that most of the damage of the electronic equipment occurs at the point of turning on and turning off (especially at the time of switching on. Namely the turning on is a “little death for the electronics due to current surges and thermal expansion of electronic components). Circuit elements feel the impact force at the switching as a result of which the damage of the components of the electronics happens and the current inrushes during switching on/off are the source of a noisy signal. To protect electronic equipment (including PCs) the so-called network conditioners are widely used … Continue reading

Does a Computer Need an Alternating Current Voltage of 220 Volts?

One of the ironies of the PC lies in the fact that it needs the constant current for normal work, and AC current of 220V is supplied to the input of the power supply unit (PSU). It is clear: where do we take the direct current, only from the normal AC power bringing it to the desired condition. Therefore, all the work to transform the current “puts on the fragile shoulders of” PSU. What is a modern power supply unit? The average power of modern PSU is from 300 to 500W. PSU produces the following voltage: • basic stable +5 … Continue reading

Windows: Where to Place the Temp Folder?

Temp folder is needed in an operating system: it is used as storage for temporary files – during the installation of the programs the software distribution is decompressed to, and it stores temporary files of programs during the work of the installed programs. The fragments of MS Word documents or other documents are also there. All of this should be deleted in itself, but the temporary files become permanent, and the Temp folder begins to spread quietly. Can I delete the folder Temp? – No, it is not necessary to delete the folder itself. It is necessary to remove its … Continue reading

How To Create A Rescue Disk Panda Antivirus?

An emergency disk is to boot the computer from the so-called clean environment. The environment is called pure (ie not containing the virus) because in this case the PC boots not from a hard drive (possibly contaminated), but from the emergency disk. If your computer is infected with a boot virus (which infects boot sectors) you will need this disc to remove it. How to create an emergency disk In the main menu select Tools -> “Emergency” disks; -start “Wizard of emergency floppy disk” -> click “Next”; -in the window “Select the drive” choose what is to create – a … Continue reading

What Is A Codec? Where Is It Found?

A codec (Engl. codec – abbr. from the coder / decoder or compressor / decompressor) is a device or software that performs the conversion of data stream or a signal. Codecs can both encode the stream / signal (for transmission, storage or encryption) and decoded – for viewing (playback, decoding). Codecs are used in digital processing and playback of video and audio. Most codecs are for audio (audio codecs) and video (video codec). They use a lossy compression to get a reasonable size of the final file. There are also codecs using a lossless compression (lossless codecs). How do I … Continue reading